This minireview describes the strategies for synthesis of fluorinated surfactants potentially non-bioaccumulable. Various strategies have been focused on (I) reducing the length of the perfluorocarbon chain, (II) introducing hetero atoms into the fluorocarbon chain, (III) introducing branch (herein and after branch means the fluoro-carbon chain section is not straight). In most cases, the surface tensions versus the surfactant concentrations have been assessed. These above strategies led to various highly fluorinated (perfluorinated or not perfluorinated) surfactants whose chemical changes enabled to obtain novel alternatives to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS). (C) 2015 Chinese Chemical Society and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.